Scientific Papers

MycoKey aims to unlock new knowledge and to valorize existing knowledge and data by rapid dissemination to research partners and stakeholders in the chain.
In the MycoKey programme all scientific peer reviewed publications are available through open access. Research data will be deposited in public data repositories for (re)-analysis exploitation and dissemination free of charge.
In this page you can find publications describing the scientific results arising from project’s activities.

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Scientific Papers
Scientific Papers
Variation in Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production Associated with Differences in Biosynthetic Gene Content in Aspergillus niger and A. welwitschiae Isolates from Multiple Crop and Geographic Origins
Variation in Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production Associated with Differences in Biosynthetic Gene Content in Aspergillus niger and A. welwitschiae Isolates from Multiple Crop and Geographic Origins Image

This paper shows the high risk due to the contamination of important food crops (cereals, grape and dried fruit) by high genetically different fungal species of Aspergillus genus that produce Ochratoxin A and Fumonisins, which are cancer related metabolites. The studies of the genetics of these Aspergilli are very important for a better prevention in the field.

Authors: Susca Antonia; Proctor Robert H; Morelli Massimiliano; Haidukowski Miriam; Gallo Antonia; Logrieco Antonio F; Moretti Antonio
Keywords: fum cluster, ota cluster, fumonisin, ochratoxin, biosynthetic gene cluster, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus welwitschiae
Published: 9/9/2016
Repository: https://www.zenodo.org/record/161680


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

 

Fumigation of Brazil nuts with allyl isothiocyanate to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and aflatoxin production
Fumigation of Brazil nuts with allyl isothiocyanate to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and aflatoxin production Image

Brazil produces approximately 40 000 tons of Brazil nuts annually, which is commonly contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins. Gaseous allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) was used to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and its production of aflatoxins (AFs) in Brazil nuts. Gaseous AITC could be used as an alternative to inhibit the growth of A. parasiticus during storage and transport of Brazil nuts. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

Authors: Lopes LF, Bordin K, de Lara GH, Saladino F, Quiles JM, Meca G, Luciano FB.
Repository: 10.1002/jsfa.8527
Keywords: food quality; food safety; mycotoxins; natural products with biocidal activity; shelf life
Published: 12/08/2017

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
Request to publish this articles under open access model are ongoing. End of switch procedure are foreseen to be on August 2018

Assessment of allyl isothiocyanate as a fumigant to avoid mycotoxin production during corn storage
Assessment of allyl isothiocyanate as a fumigant to avoid mycotoxin production during corn storage Image

The occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in foods modify sensorial properties and represents a health risk for consumers, and the use of natural antimicrobials may be an alternative to reduce this problem. The objective of this study was evaluate the potential of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in inhibit the production of mycotoxins in corn kernels by Aspergillus parasticus, Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium verticillioides, Alternaria alternata and Gibberela zeae.

Authors: Bruno Ludvig Tracz (1) , Keliani Bordin (1), Tiago de Melo Nazareth(1), Leandro Batista Costa (1), Renata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo (1), Giuseppe Meca (2), Fernando Bittencourt Luciano (1)
Repository: https://zenodo.org/record/1123225
Keywords: Essential oil; Mycotoxigenic fungi; Stored grains; Natural compounds
Published: 12/10/2016

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Rimozione della aflatossina M1 e potenziali applicativi di una laccasi da Pleurotus eryngii per la sicurezza del latte
Rimozione della aflatossina M1 e potenziali applicativi di una laccasi da Pleurotus eryngii per la sicurezza del latte Image

Aflatoxin M1 removal and potential applications of a laccase enzyme from Pleurotus eryngii for milk safety – Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), is the main catabolite deriving from the hydroxylation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), found in the milk of animals fed with AFB1 contaminated feeds. The International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified it in group 2B, thus possibly carcinogenic for humans. Their maximum limit in raw milk, heat-treated milk and milk for the manufacture of milk-based products, has been set by the Regulation (EC) 1881 of 2006 to 50ng/kg. AFM1 resists to the most common treatments of food industry and persists in processed product. Its occurrence has been registered throughout the whole dairy supply chain, including yogurts and cheeses, and it represents a serious risk for humans and animals. The development of mild, green and efficient methods for AFM1 degradation is an actual and crucial topic.

Authors: Martina Loi, Laura Quintieri, Francesca Fanelli, Vania C. Liuzzi, Miriam Haidukowski, Antonio F. Logrieco, Giuseppina Mulè
Keywords:safety, milk, laccase, aflatoxin M1, protein cross-linking, milk texture, allergenicity
Published: 10/05/2016
Repository: https://zenodo.org/record/822778


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

In vitro antifungal activity of bioactive peptides produced by Lactobacillus plantarum against Aspergillus parasiticus and Penicillium expansum
In vitro antifungal activity of bioactive peptides produced by Lactobacillus plantarum against Aspergillus parasiticus and Penicillium expansum Image

Food spoilage caused by mycotoxigenic moulds represents an important problem in food security. The antimicrobial peptides are compounds of natural origin constituted by a variable number (5–100) of amino acids held together through peptide bonds. In this work, the cell free supernatants (CFSs) containing peptides obtained from four strains of LAB were lyophilized, filtered and tested to determine the antifungal activity against Aspergillus Parasiticus and Penicillium expansum. CFS obtained by Lactobacillus plantarum showed the highest inhibition activity. CFS was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and injected into the liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. One of the recollected fractions resulted interesting for the presence of three peaks that were purified by the technique of the LC-DAD using a semi preparative C18 column.

Authors: C.Luz; F.Saladino; F.B.Luciano; J.Mañes; G.Meca
Keywords: Antimicrobial peptides; Antifungal activity; Lactobacillus plantarum; Spoilage fungi
Published: 31/03/2017
Repository: https://zenodo.org/record/1167602


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

In vitro single and combined mycotoxins degradation by Ery4 laccase from Pleurotus eryngii and redox mediators
In vitro single and combined mycotoxins degradation by Ery4 laccase from Pleurotus eryngii and redox mediators Image

The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of a laccase (LC) from Pleurotus eryngii and a laccase-mediator systems (LMSs) to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), Zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin in in vitro assays. In addition, the simultaneous mycotoxin degradation capability with selected LMSs was evaluated with combinations of AFB1 and ZEN, and FB1 and T-2 toxin.

Authors: Martina Loi; Francesca Fanelli; Maria Teresa Cimmarusti; Valentina Mirabelli  Miriam Haidukowski; Antonio F.Logrieco; Rocco Caliandro; Giuseppina Mule
Repository: https://zenodo.org/record/1216974
Keywords: Mycotoxins; Bioremediation; Laccase-Mediator System; Multi-mycotoxin degradation
Published: 14/03/2018

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide
The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide Image

Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu) was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative.

Authors: Antonio F. Logrieco ; J. David Miller; Mari Eskola; Rudolf Krska, Amare Ayalew; Ranajit Bandyopadhyay; Paola Battilani; Deepak Bhatnagar; Sofia Chulze; Sarah De Saeger; Peiwu Li; Giancarlo Perrone; Amnart Poapolathep; Endang S. Rahayu; Gordon S. Shephard; François Stepman; Hao Zhang; John F. Leslie.
Keywords: United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; consumers; education and outreach; food production; food safety; food security; health risks; trade
Published: 04/04/2018
Repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5923315/

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey. 
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Host and Cropping System Shape the Fusarium Population: 3ADON-Producers Are Ubiquitous in Wheat Whereas NIV-Producers Are More Prevalent in Rice
Host and Cropping System Shape the Fusarium Population: 3ADON-Producers Are Ubiquitous in Wheat Whereas NIV-Producers Are More Prevalent in Rice Image

In recent years, Fusarium head blight (FHB) outbreaks have occurred much more frequently in China. The reduction of burning of the preceding crop residues is suggested to contribute to more severe epidemics as it may increase the initial inoculum. In this study, a large number of Fusarium isolates was collected from blighted wheat spikes as well as from rice stubble with perithecia originating from nine sampling sites in five provinces in Southern China. Fusarium asiaticum dominated both wheat and rice populations, although rice populations showed a higher species diversity. Chemotype analysis showed that rice is the preferred niche for NIV mycotoxin producers that were shown to be less virulent on wheat. In contrast, 3ADON producers are more prevalent on wheat and in wheat producing areas. The 3ADON producers were shown to be more virulent on wheat, revealing the selection pressure of wheat on 3ADON producers. For the first time, members of the Incarnatum-clade of Fusarium IncarnatumEquiseti Species Complex (FIESC) were found to reproduce sexually on rice stubble. The pathogenicity of FIESC isolates on wheat proved very low and this may cause the apparent absence of this species in the main wheat producing provinces. This is the first report of the Fusarium population structure including rice stubble as well as a direct comparison with the population on wheat heads in the same fields. Our results confirm that the perithecia on rice stubble are the primary inoculum of FHB on wheat and that cropping systems affect the local Fusarium population.

Authors: Meixin Yang 1,†, Hao Zhang 1,†, Xiangjiu Kong 1, Theo van der Lee 2, Cees Waalwijk , Anne van Diepeningen 2, Jin Xu 1, Jingsheng Xu 1, Wanquan Chen 1,*  and Jie Feng 1,*
Keywords:  Fusarium head blight; chemotype; cropping system; rice stubble
Published: 08/03/2018
Repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5923315/

This work received funding from the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFE0112900, 2016YFD0300705) and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme
under grant agreement No. 678781 (MycoKey) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31201477) and Fundamental Research Funds for Central Non-Profit Scientific Institution (Y2017XM01).
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Genome-wide analysis of family-1 UDP glycosyltransferases (UGT) and identification of UGT genes for FHB resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Genome-wide analysis of family-1 UDP glycosyltransferases (UGT) and identification of UGT genes for FHB resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Image

In this study, we carried out a genome-wide analysis of family-1 UDP glycosyltransferases in wheat based on the PSPG conserved box that resulted in the identification of 179 putative UGT genes. The identified genes were clustered into 16 major phylogenetic groups with a lack of phylogenetic group K. The UGTgenes were invariably distributed among all the chromosomes of the 3 genomes. At least 10 intron insertion events were found in the UGT sequences, where intron 4 was observed as the most conserved intron. The expression analysis of the wheat UGT genes using both online microarray data and quantitative real-time PCR verification suggested the distinct role of UGT genes in different tissues and developmental stages. The expression of many UGT genes was up-regulated after Fusarium graminearum inoculation, and six of the genes were further verified by RT-qPCR.

Authors: Yi He, Dawood Ahmad, Xu Zhang, Yu Zhang, Lei Wu, Peng Jiang and Hongxiang Ma
Keywords: Deoxynivalenol; Expression pattern; Fusarium head blight; Phylogeny; UDP-glycosyltransferase; Wheat
Published: 19/04/2018
Repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5923315/

This work was partially supported by the National Key Project for the Research and Development of China (2016YFE0112900, 2016YFD0100500), China Agricultural Research System Program (CARS-03), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31561143004), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu province, China (BK20170605) and European Union Horizon 2020 Mycokey project (EU678781).
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

The Fusarium graminearum Histone Acetyltransferases Are Important for Morphogenesis, DON Biosynthesis, and Pathogenicity
The Fusarium graminearum Histone Acetyltransferases Are Important for Morphogenesis, DON Biosynthesis, and Pathogenicity Image

Post-translational modifications of chromatin structure by histone acetyltransferase (HATs) play a central role in the regulation of gene expression and various biological processes in eukaryotes. Although HAT genes have been studied in many fungi, few of them have been functionally characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized four putative HATs (FgGCN5, FgRTT109, FgSAS2, FgSAS3) in the plant pathogenic ascomycete Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. We replaced the genes and all mutant strains showed reduced growth of F. graminearum. The ΔFgSAS3 and ΔFgGCN5 mutant increased sensitivity to oxidative and osmotic stresses. Additionally, ΔFgSAS3 showed reduced conidia sporulation and perithecium formation. Mutant ΔFgGCN5 was unable to generate any conidia and lost its ability to form perithecia. Our data showed also that FgSAS3 and FgGCN5 are pathogenicity factors required for infecting wheat heads as well as tomato fruits. Importantly, almost no Deoxynivalenol (DON) was produced either in ΔFgSAS3 or ΔFgGCN5 mutants, which was consistent with a significant downregulation of TRI genes expression. Furthermore, we discovered for the first time that FgSAS3 is indispensable for the acetylation of histone site H3K4, while FgGCN5 is essential for the acetylation of H3K9, H3K18, and H3K27. H3K14 can be completely acetylated when FgSAS3 and FgGCN5 were both present. The RNA-seq analyses of the two mutant strains provide insight into their functions in development and metabolism. Results from this study clarify the functional divergence of HATs in F. graminearum, and may provide novel targeted strategies to control secondary metabolite expression and infections of F. graminearum.

Authors: Xiangjiu Kong, Anne D. van Diepeningen, Theo A. J. van der Lee, Cees Waalwijk, Jingsheng Xu1, Jin Xu1, Hao Zhang1, Wanquan Chen1, Jie Feng1
Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; deoxynivalenol; histone acetyltransferase; pathogenicity; secondary metabolism
Published: 26/04/2018
Repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29755419

This work has received funding from the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFE0112900, 2016YFD0300705) and European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 678781 (MycoKey) and Fundamental Research Funds for Central Non-profit Scientific Institution (Y2017XM01).CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

A Rapid Label-Free Fluorescent Aptasensor PicoGreen-Based Strategy for Aflatoxin B1 Detection in Traditional Chinese Medicines
A Rapid Label-Free Fluorescent Aptasensor PicoGreen-Based Strategy for Aflatoxin B1 Detection in Traditional Chinese Medicines Image

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a very hazardous carcinogen, readily contaminating foodstuffs and traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) that has inspired increasing health concerns due to dietary exposure. Colloidal nanocrystals have been proposed as optical labels for aptasensor assembly, but these typically require tedious multistep conjugation and suffer from unsatisfactory robustness when used for complex matrices. In the present study, we report a rapid and sensitive method for screening for trace AFB1 levels in TCMs using a label-free fluorescent aptasensor PicoGreen dye-based strategy. Using PicoGreen to selectively measure complementary double-stranded DNA, fluorescence enhancement due to dsDNA is ‘turned off’ in the presence of AFB1 due binding of aptamer target over complementary sequence. Self-assembly of a label-free fluorescent aptasensor based on AFB1 aptamer and PicoGreen dye was performed. Due to competition between the complementary sequence and AFB1 target, this rapid method was capable of highly sensitive and selective screening for AFB1 in five types of TCMs. This proposed approach had a limit of detection as low as 0.1 μg·L−1 and good linearity with a range of 0.1–10 μg·L−1 (0.1–10 ppb). Among the 20 samples tested, 6 batches were found to be contaminated with AFB1 using this method, which was confirmed using sophisticated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. The results of this study indicate the developed method has the potential to be a simple, quick, and sensitive tool for detecting AFB1 in TCMs.

Authors: Cheng Zhang , Xiaowen Dou , Lei Zhang , Meifeng Sun , Ming Zhao , Zhen OuYang, Dandan Kong , F. Logrieco Antonio, Meihua Yang
Keywords:  aflatoxin B1, aptamer, PicoGreen, fluorescence, traditional Chinese medicines
Published: 28/02/2018
Repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5869389/

This work was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFE0112900), EU project H2020-E.U.3.2-678781-MycoKey, National Project for Standardization of Chinese Materia Medica (ZYBZH-Y-JIN-34), CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2016-I2M-1-012, 2017-I2M-1-013). CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, Reduction of Deoxynivalenol Accumulation and Phytohormone Induction by Two Selected Antagonists
Biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, Reduction of Deoxynivalenol Accumulation and Phytohormone Induction by Two Selected Antagonists Image

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat and other small cereal grains worldwide. Species within the Fusarium graminearum complex are the main pathogens associated with the disease, F. graminearum sensu stricto being the main pathogen in Argentina. Biocontrol can be used as part of an integrated pest management strategy. Phytohormones play a key role in the plant defense system and their production can be induced by antagonistic microorganisms. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of Bacillus velezensis RC 218, F. graminearum and their co-inoculation on the production of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in wheat spikes at different periods of time under greenhouse conditions, and to evaluate the effect of B. velezensis RC 218 and Streptomyces albidoflavus RC 87B on FHB disease incidence, severity and deoxynivalenol accumulation on Triticum turgidum L. var. durum under field conditions. Under greenhouse conditions the production of JA was induced after F. graminearum inoculation at 48 and 72 h, but JA levels were reduced in the co-inoculated treatments. No differences in JA or SA levels were observed between the B. velezensis treatment and the water control. In the spikes inoculated with F. graminearum, SA production was induced early (12 h), as it was shown for initial FHB basal resistance, while JA was induced at a later stage (48 h), revealing different defense strategies at different stages of infection by the hemibiotrophic pathogen F. graminearum. Both B. velezensis RC 218 and S. albidoflavus RC 87B effectively reduced FHB incidence (up to 30%), severity (up to 25%) and deoxynivalenol accumulation (up to 51%) on durum wheat under field conditions.

Authors: Juan Palazzini , Pablo Roncallo , Renata Cantoro , María Chiotta , Nadia Yerkovich , Sofía Palacios , Viviana Echenique , Adriana Torres , María Ramirez , Petr Karlovsky, Sofía Chulze ,
Repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5848189/
Keywords: biocontrol; durum wheat; phytohormones; wheat defense modulation
Published: 20/02/2018

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey. 
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

MycoKey Round Table Discussions of Future Directions in Research on Chemical Detection Methods, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mycotoxins
MycoKey Round Table Discussions of Future Directions in Research on Chemical Detection Methods, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mycotoxins Image

MycoKey, an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project, includes a series of “Roundtable Discussions” to gather information on trending research areas in the field of mycotoxicology. This paper includes summaries of the Roundtable Discussions on Chemical Detection and Monitoring of mycotoxins and on the role of genetics and biodiversity in mycotoxin production. Discussions were managed by using the nominal group discussion technique, which generates numerous ideas and provides a ranking for those identified as the most important. Four questions were posed for each research area, as well as two questions that were common to both discussions. Test kits, usually antibody based, were one major focus of the discussions at the Chemical Detection and Monitoring roundtable because of their many favorable features, e.g., cost, speed and ease of use. The second area of focus for this roundtable was multi-mycotoxin detection protocols and the challenges still to be met to enable these protocols to become methods of choice for regulated mycotoxins. For the genetic and biodiversity group, both the depth and the breadth of trending research areas were notable. For some areas, e.g., microbiome studies, the suggested research questions were primarily of a descriptive nature. In other areas, multiple experimental approaches, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, RNAi and gene deletions, are needed to understand the regulation of toxin production and mechanisms underlying successful biological controls. Answers to the research questions will provide starting points for developing acceptable prevention and remediation processes. Forging a partnership between scientists and appropriately-placed communications experts was recognized by both groups as an essential step to communicating risks, while retaining overall confidence in the safety of the food supply and the integrity of the food production chain.

Authors: John F. Leslie , Veronica Lattanzio , Kris Audenaert , Paola Battilani , Jeffrey Cary , Sofia N. Chulze , Sarah De Saeger , Annamaria Gerardino , Petr Karlovsky , Yu-Cai Liao , Chris M. Maragos , Giuseppe Meca , Angel Medina , Antonio Moretti , Gary Munkvold , Giuseppina Mulè , Patrick Njobeh , Ivan Pecorelli , Giancarlo Perrone , Amedeo Pietri , Juan M. Palazzini , Robert H. Proctor , Endang S. Rahayu , Maria L. Ramírez , Robert Samson , Jörg Stroka , Michael Sulyok , Mark Sumarah , Cees Waalwijk , Qi Zhang , Hao Zhang ,Antonio F. Logrieco
Repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29494529
Keywords: antibodies; biological control; communication with non-scientists; metabolomics; microbiome; multi-mycotoxin detection protocols; nominal group discussion technique; proteomics; transcriptomics
Published: 01/03/2018

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey and the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for the Reduction of Postharvest Losses.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

A Review of Current Methods for Analysis of Mycotoxins in Herbal Medicines
A Review of Current Methods for Analysis of Mycotoxins in Herbal Medicines Image

The presence of mycotoxins in herbal medicines is an established problem throughout the entire world. The sensitive and accurate analysis of mycotoxin in complicated matrices (e.g., herbs) typically involves challenging sample pretreatment procedures and an efficient detection instrument. However, although numerous reviews have been published regarding the occurrence of mycotoxins in herbal medicines, few of them provided a detailed summary of related analytical methods for mycotoxin determination. This review focuses on analytical techniques including sampling, extraction, cleanup, and detection for mycotoxin determination in herbal medicines established within the past ten years. Dedicated sections of this article address the significant developments in sample preparation, and highlight the importance of this procedure in the analytical technology. This review also summarizes conventional chromatographic techniques for mycotoxin qualification or quantitation, as well as recent studies regarding the development and application of screening assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, lateral flow immunoassays, aptamer-based lateral flow assays, and cytometric bead arrays. The present work provides a good insight regarding the advanced research that has been done and closes with an indication of future demand for the emerging technologies.

Authors: Lei Zhang , Xiao-Wen Dou 1 Cheng Zhang , Antonio F. Logrieco , Mei-Hua Yang
Keywords:  chromatographic methods; herbal medicines; mycotoxin; rapid detection method; sample pretreatment; sampling
Published: 02/02/2018
Repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29393905

This work was supported  by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFE0112900), EU project H2020-E.U.3.2-678781-MycoKey, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (CIFMS, 2016-I2M-1-012, 2017-I2M-1-013), and National Project for Standardization of Chinese Materia Medica (ZYBZH-Y-JIN-34). CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

An aldo-keto reductase is responsible for Fusarium toxin-degrading activity in a soil Sphingomonas strain
An aldo-keto reductase is responsible for Fusarium toxin-degrading activity in a soil Sphingomonas strain Image

Degradation of toxins by microorganisms is a promising approach for detoxification of agricultural products. Here, a bacterial strain, Sphingomonas S3-4, that has the ability to degrade the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was isolated from wheat fields. Incubation of Fusarium-infected wheat grains with S3-4 completely eliminated DON. In S3-4 DON is catabolized into compounds with no detectable phytotoxicity, 3-oxo-DON and 3-epi-DON, via two sequential reactions. Comparative analysis of genome sequences from two DON-degrading strains, S3-4 and Devosia D17, and one non-DON-degrading strain, Sphingobium S26, combined with functional screening of a S3-4 genomic BAC library led to the discovery that a novel aldo/keto reductase superfamily member, AKR18A1, is responsible for oxidation of DON into 3-oxo-DON. DON-degrading activity is completely abolished in a mutant S3-4 strain where the AKR18A1 gene is disrupted. Recombinant AKR18A1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the reversible oxidation/reduction of DON at a wide range of pH values (7.5 to 11) and temperatures (10 to 50 °C). The S3-4 strain and recombinant AKR18A1 also catabolized zearalenone and the aldehydes glyoxal and methyglyoxal. The S3-4 strain and the AKR18A1 gene are promising agents for the control of Fusarium pathogens and detoxification of mycotoxins in plants and in food/feed products.

Authors: He W.-J., Zhang L., Yi S.Y., Tang X.L., Yuan Q.-S., Guo M.-W., Gong A.-D., Wu A.B., Qu B., Li H.-P., Liao Y.-C.
Keywords: Fusarium; S3-4; AKR18A1; DON; Detoxification
Published: 2/08/2017
Repository: 10.1038/s41598-017-08799-w


This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China MOST (2016YFE0112900)
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

The mitochondrial membrane protein FgLetm1 regulates mitochondrial integrity, production of endogenous reactive oxygen species and mycotoxin biosynthesis in Fusarium graminearum
The mitochondrial membrane protein FgLetm1 regulates mitochondrial integrity, production of endogenous reactive oxygen species and mycotoxin biosynthesis in Fusarium graminearum Image

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced in cereal crops infected with Fusarium graminearum. DON poses a serious threat to human and animal health and is a critical virulence factor. Various environmental factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to interfere with DON biosynthesis in this pathogen. The regulatory mechanisms of how ROS trigger DON production have been extensively investigated in F. graminearum.

Authors: Tang G1, Zhang C1,2, Ju Z1, Zheng S1, Wen Z1, Xu S1, Chen Y1, Ma Z1.
Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; Endogenous reactive oxygen species; FgLetm1; Mitochondrial integrity; Mycotoxin; Virulence
Published: 27/10/2017
Repository: 10.1111/mpp.12633


This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China MOST (2016YFE0112900)

Shelf life improvement of the loaf bread using allyl, phenyl and benzyl isothiocyanates against Aspergillus parasiticus
Shelf life improvement of the loaf bread using allyl, phenyl and benzyl isothiocyanates against Aspergillus parasiticus Image

Fungal growth inhibition and aflatoxins (AFs) reduction using allyl (AITC), benzyl (BITC) and phenyl (PITC) isothiocyanates were studied in loaf bread contaminated with Aspergillus parasiticus. Two inoculated loaf bread slices were introduced into a plastic tray together with paper filters or small plastic bags paper filters soaked with AITC, BITC or PITC, the final concentration inside the package was of 0.5, 1 or 5 μL/L.

Authors: Federica Saladino, Juan Manuel Quiles, Fernando B.Luciano, Jordi Mañes, Mónica Fernández-Franzón, Giuseppe Meca
Repository: https://zenodo.org/record/1157969
Keywords: Aspergillus spp.;  Loaf bread; Isothiocyanates; Shelf life improvements;  Aflatoxin reduction
Published: 27/12/2016

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY-NC-ND-4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives
Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives Image

This review focuses on the biotransformation of mycotoxins performed with purified enzymes isolated from bacteria, fungi and plants, whose activity was validated in in vitro and in vivo assays, including patented ones and commercial preparations. Furthermore, we will present some applications for detoxifying enzymes in food, feed, biogas and biofuel industries, describing their limitation and potentialities.

Authors: Martina Loi, Francesca Fanelli, Vania C. Liuzzi, Antonio F. Logrieco, Giuseppina Mulè
Repository: https://zenodo.org/record/466207
Keywords: mycotoxins; biotransformation; degradation; enzymes; application
Published: 24/03/2017

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

 

 

Aflatoxin B1 and M1 Degradation by Lac2 from Pleurotus pulmonarius and Redox Mediators
Aflatoxin B1 and M1 Degradation by Lac2 from Pleurotus pulmonarius and Redox Mediators Image
 This paper reports the possibility that a laccase enzyme produced by a mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius, could degrade the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1. This activity can be very useful, since opens the perspective of applying such enzyme in the food and feed supply chains for reducing eventual AFB1 contamination.

Authors: Martina Loi, Francesca Fanelli, Paolo Zucca, Vania C. Liuzzi , Laura Quintieri, Maria T. Cimmarusti, Linda Monaci, Miriam Haidukowski, Antonio F. Logrieco, Enrico Sanjust, Giuseppina Mulè.
Keywords: laccase; Pleurotus; mycotoxins; aflatoxin B1; aflatoxin M1; biodegradation; redox mediators
Published: 23/8/2016
Repository: https://www.zenodo.org/record/161671


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

 

Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Products
Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Products Image

An unprecedented, environmentally friendly, and faster method for the determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA)  has for the first time, been set up and validated using choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) (e.g., ChCl/glycerol (1:2) and ChCl/ urea (1:2) up to 40% (w/w) water) as privileged, green, and biodegradable extraction solvents.

Authors: Luca Piemontese, Filippo Maria Perna, Antonio Logrieco, Vito Capriati, Michele Solfrizzo.
Repository: https://www.zenodo.org/record/252327
Keywords: deep eutectic solvents; Ochratoxin A; food chemistry; analytical method; green solvents
Published: 12/01/2017

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

 

Decontamination of Fumonisin B1 in maize grain by Pleurotus eryngii and antioxidant enzymes
Decontamination of Fumonisin B1 in maize grain by Pleurotus eryngii and antioxidant enzymes Image

This paper investigates the potential role of P. eryngii in the decontamination of FB1 in maize. Selected antioxidant enzymes, (soluble peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase), primarily involved in control of cell hydrogen peroxide levels, and lignin degradation, were analyzed, to evaluate their contributions to the molecular mechanisms of FB1 by P. eryngii.

Authors: Miriam Haidukowski; Giuseppe Cozzi; Nunzio Dipierro; Simona L. Bavaro; Antonio F. Logrieco; Costantino Paciolla
Keywords: fungal strains, fumonisin B1, hydrogen peroxide, decontamination, mycotoxins.
Published: 10/05/2017
Repository: https://www.zenodo.org/record/574663


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Enniatin and Beauvericin Biosynthesis in Fusarium Species: Production Profiles and Structural Determinant Prediction
Enniatin and Beauvericin Biosynthesis in Fusarium Species: Production Profiles and Structural Determinant Prediction Image

In this study, we analyzed the primary structure of ESYN1 by sequencing esyn1 transcripts from different Fusarium species. Members of the fungal genus Fusarium can produce numerous secondary metabolites, including the nonribosomal mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Both mycotoxins are synthesized by the multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase (ESYN1) that contains both peptide synthetase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent N-methyltransferase activities.

Authors: Vania C. Liuzzi, Valentina Mirabelli, Maria Teresa Cimmarusti, Miriam Haidukowski, John F. Leslie, Antonio F. Logrieco, Rocco Caliandro,Francesca Fanelli, Giuseppina Mulè.
Repository: https://www.zenodo.org/record/264018
Keywords: enniatin; beauvericin; ESYN1; mycotoxins; Fusarium; homology modelling; multivariate analysis; backbone angles
Published: 25/01/2017

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

 

Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1
Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1 Image

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L. was developed.

Authors: Vanhoutte I; De Mets L; De Boevre M; Uka V; Di Mavungu JD; De Saeger S; De Gelder L; Audenaert K.
Keywords: deoxynivalenol (DON); Lemna minor; bioassay; biotransformation; detoxification; 3-epi-DON; 3-epi-de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1)
Published: 13/02/2017
Repository: https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/8512245


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Bioremediation of aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize by king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)
Bioremediation of aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize by king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Image

This paper investigated the capability of the white-rot and edible fungus Plerotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) to degrade AFB1 both in vitro and in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation, using a substrate similar to that routinely used in mushroom farms.

Authors: Maria Teresa Branà; Maria Teresa Cimmarusti; Miriam Haidukowski; Antonio Francesco Logrieco; Claudio Altomare
Keywords: mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Plerotus eryngii, detoxification
Published: 3/8/2017
Repository: https://zenodo.org/record/884435


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Mitochondrial genomes reveal recombination in the presumed asexual Fusarium oxysporum species complex
Mitochondrial genomes reveal recombination in the presumed asexual Fusarium oxysporum species complex Image

The mitochondrial recombination indicates the presence of a parasexual cycle in F. oxysporum. The obstacles hindering the usage of the mitogenomes are resolved by using next generation sequencing and selective genome
assemblers, such as GRAbB. Complete mitogenome sequences offer a stable basis and reference point for phylogenetic and population genetic studies.

Authors: Balázs Brankovics, Peter van Dam, Martijn Rep, G. Sybren de Hoog, Theo A. J. van der Lee, Cees Waalwijk and Anne D. van Diepeningen.
Repository: http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC5604515
Keywords: Comparative genomics, Mitochondrial genome, Mitochondrial recombination, Phylogenomics
Published: 18/09/2017

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Antimicrobial packaging based on E-polylysine bioactive film for the control of mycotoxigenic fungi in vitro and in bread
Antimicrobial packaging based on E-polylysine bioactive film for the control of mycotoxigenic fungi in vitro and in bread Image

This study investigates the use of E-PL as natural antimicrobial to inhibit fungal growth and to reduce aflatoxins (AFs) production. Antifungal activity of starch biofilms with different concentrations of E-Poly-L-lysine (E-PL) was determined in solid medium against Aspergillus parasiticus (AFs producer) and Penicillium expansum. Then, biofilms were tested as antimicrobial devices for the preservation of bread loaf inoculated with A. parasiticus CECT 2681 and P. expansum CECT 2278.

Authors: C. Luz, J. Calpe, F. Saladino, Fernando B. Luciano, M. Fernandez-Franzon, J. Manes, G. Meca
Keywords: E-Poly-L-lysine, aflatoxins, antimicrobial packaging, E-PL biofilms
Published: 12/10/2017
Repository: https://zenodo.org/record/1013427


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of commercial bread loaf in Valencia, Spain
Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of commercial bread loaf in Valencia, Spain Image

In this study, 80 commercial samples of bread loaves were purchased from different supermarkets located in Valencia (Spain). These samples were investigated for the presence of legislated and non-legislated mycotoxins. Results showed that samples were contaminated with Aflatoxins (AFs), Zearalenone (ZEA) and Enniatins (ENs) with a frequency of 20, 96, and 65% respectively. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) were detected with concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 7.1 μg/kg. The samples contaminated with AFB1 showed values exceeding the maximum limit allowed in the EU.

Authors: FedericaSaladino; Juan ManuelQuiles; Jordi Mañes; MónicaFernández-Franzón; Fernando Bittencourt Luciano; GiuseppeMecaa
Repository: https://zenodo.org/record/1123246
Keywords: Mycotoxins; LC-MS/MS; Loaf bread; Risk assessment; Estimated daily intake
Published: 13/10/2017

This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Recent advances in modeling the risk of mycotoxin contamination in crops
Recent advances in modeling the risk of mycotoxin contamination in crops Image

Recent advances confirm the focus in modeling mycotoxin in few crops; cereals, both small grains and maize, deserve major attention. Deoxinivalenol is still the mycotoxin of major interest in wheat, with some studies developed on T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Regarding maize, after fumonisins, the interest moved to aflatoxins. Minor efforts were devoted to aflatoxin contamination in nuts and ochratoxin A in grapes. Weather data are the main driving variables used as input in all modeling approaches, in empiric models commonly supported by cropping data. Few example of mechanistic models were developed, but they seem more promising in the future, when climate change is expected to significantly impact on mycotoxins.

Authors: Battilani P.
Keywords:
Published: 3/9/2016
Repository: https://www.zenodo.org/record/161680


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Genetic divergence and chemotype diversity in the Fusarium head blight pathogen Fusarium poae
Genetic divergence and chemotype diversity in the Fusarium head blight pathogen Fusarium poae Image

Fusarium head blight is a disease caused by a complex of Fusarium species. F. poae is omnipresent throughout Europe in spite of its low virulence. In this study, we assessed a geographically diverse collection of F. poae isolates for its genetic diversity using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism). Furthermore, studying the mating type locus and chromosomal insertions, we identified hallmarks of both sexual recombination and clonal spread of successful genotypes in the population. Despite the large genetic variation found, all F. poae isolates possess the nivalenol chemotype based on Tri7 sequence analysis. Nevertheless, Tri gene clusters showed two layers of genetic variability

Authors:Vanheule A; De Boevre M; Bekaert B; Moretti A; Scauflaire J; Munaut, F; Höfte M; De Saeger, S; Haesaert G; Waalwijk C; van der Lee T; Audenaert K.
Keywords: Fusarium; AFLP; trichothecenes; transposable element; mating type; meiosis
Published: 23/8/2017
Repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5618188/


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Molecular Basis of Resistance to Fusarium Ear Rot in Maize
Molecular Basis of Resistance to Fusarium Ear Rot in Maize Image

The impact of climate change has been identified as an emerging issue for food security and safety, and the increased incidence of mycotoxin contamination in maize over the last two decades is considered a potential emerging hazard. Disease control by chemical and agronomic approaches is often ineffective and increases the cost of production; for this reason the exploitation of genetic resistance is the most sustainable method for reducing contamination. The review focuses on the significant advances that have been made in the development of transcriptomic, genetic and genomic information for maize, Fusarium verticillioides molds, and their interactions, over recent years. Findings from transcriptomic studies have been used to outline a specific model for the intracellular signaling cascade occurring in maize cells against F. verticillioides infection.

Authors: Lanubile A, Maschietto V, Borrelli VM, Stagnati L, Logrieco AF, Marocco A.
Keywords:
Published: 12/10/2017
Repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5644281/


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey.
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Genomic characterization of Trichoderma atrobrunneum (T. harzianum species complex) ITEM 908: insight into the genetic endowment of a multi-target biocontrol strain
Genomic characterization of Trichoderma atrobrunneum (T. harzianum species complex) ITEM 908: insight into the genetic endowment of a multi-target biocontrol strain Image

The MLST analysis of ITS-TEF1 concatenated datasets reclassified ITEM 908 as T. atrobrunneum, a species recently described within the T. harzianum species complex and phylogenetically close to T. afroharzianum and T. guizhouense. Genomic analysis revealed the presence of a broad range of genes encoding for carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZYmes), proteins involved in secondary metabolites production, peptaboils, epidithiodioxopiperazines and siderophores potentially involved in parasitism, saprophytic degradation as well as in biocontrol and antagonistic activities. This abundance is comparable to other Trichoderma spp. in the T. harzianum species complex, but broader than in other biocontrol species and in the species T. reesei, known for its industrial application in cellulase production. Comparative analysis also demonstrated similar genomic organization of major secondary metabolites clusters, as in other Trichoderma species.

Authors: Francesca Fanelli; Vania Cosma Liuzzi; Antonio Francesco Logrieco; Claudio Altomare
Keywords: Antagonism; Biocontrol; CAZYmes; Comparative genomics; Mycoparasitism; Peptaibols; Secondary metabolites; Trichoderma
Published: 11/9/2018
Repository: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30200883


This work has received funding form the  the EU’s H2020 research and innovation programme under GA No 678781- MycoKey. 
CC-BY license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Scientific Papers
Variation in Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production Associated with Differences in Biosynthetic Gene Content in Aspergillus niger and A. welwitschiae Isolates from Multiple Crop and Geographic Origins Image
Variation in Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production Associated with Differences in Biosynthetic Gene Content in Aspergillus niger and A. welwitschiae Isolates from Multiple Crop and Geographic Origins
This paper shows the high risk due to the contamination of important food crops (cereals, grape and dried fruit) by high genetically different fungal species of Aspergillus genus that produce Ochratoxin A and... Read More
Fumigation of Brazil nuts with allyl isothiocyanate to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and aflatoxin production Image
Fumigation of Brazil nuts with allyl isothiocyanate to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and aflatoxin production
Brazil produces approximately 40 000 tons of Brazil nuts annually, which is commonly contaminated with fungi and mycotox... Read More
Assessment of allyl isothiocyanate as a fumigant to avoid mycotoxin production during corn storage Image
Assessment of allyl isothiocyanate as a fumigant to avoid mycotoxin production during corn storage
The occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in foods modify sensorial properties and r... Read More
Rimozione della aflatossina M1 e potenziali applicativi di una laccasi da Pleurotus eryngii per la sicurezza del latte Image
Rimozione della aflatossina M1 e potenziali applicativi di una laccasi da Pleurotus eryngii per la sicurezza del latte
Aflatoxin M1 removal and potential applications of a laccase enzyme from Pleurotus eryngii for milk safety – Aflat... Read More
In vitro antifungal activity of bioactive peptides produced by Lactobacillus plantarum against Aspergillus parasiticus and Penicillium expansum Image
In vitro antifungal activity of bioactive peptides produced by Lactobacillus plantarum against Aspergillus parasiticus and Penicillium expansum
Food spoilage caused by mycotoxigenic moulds represents an important problem in food security. The antimicrobial peptide... Read More
In vitro single and combined mycotoxins degradation by Ery4 laccase from Pleurotus eryngii and redox mediators Image
In vitro single and combined mycotoxins degradation by Ery4 laccase from Pleurotus eryngii and redox mediators
The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of a laccase (LC) from Pleurotus eryngii and a laccase-med... Read More
The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide Image
The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide
Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycoto... Read More
Host and Cropping System Shape the Fusarium Population: 3ADON-Producers Are Ubiquitous in Wheat Whereas NIV-Producers Are More Prevalent in Rice Image
Host and Cropping System Shape the Fusarium Population: 3ADON-Producers Are Ubiquitous in Wheat Whereas NIV-Producers Are More Prevalent in Rice
In recent years, Fusarium head blight (FHB) outbreaks have occurred much more frequently in China. The reduction of burning of the preceding crop residues is suggested to contribute to more severe epidemics as it may increase the initial... Read More
Genome-wide analysis of family-1 UDP glycosyltransferases (UGT) and identification of UGT genes for FHB resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Image
Genome-wide analysis of family-1 UDP glycosyltransferases (UGT) and identification of UGT genes for FHB resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
In this study, we carried out a genome-wide analysis of family-1 UDP glycosyltransferases in wheat based on the PSPG conserved box that resulted in the identification of 179 putative UGT genes. The i... Read More
The Fusarium graminearum Histone Acetyltransferases Are Important for Morphogenesis, DON Biosynthesis, and Pathogenicity Image
The Fusarium graminearum Histone Acetyltransferases Are Important for Morphogenesis, DON Biosynthesis, and Pathogenicity
Post-translational modifications of chromatin structure by histone acetyltransferase (HATs) play a central role in the regulation of gene expression and various biological processes in eukaryotes. Although H... Read More
A Rapid Label-Free Fluorescent Aptasensor PicoGreen-Based Strategy for Aflatoxin B1 Detection in Traditional Chinese Medicines Image
A Rapid Label-Free Fluorescent Aptasensor PicoGreen-Based Strategy for Aflatoxin B1 Detection in Traditional Chinese Medicines
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a very hazardous carcinogen, readily contaminating foodstuffs and traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) that has inspired increasing health concerns due to dietary exposure. Colloidal n... Read More
Biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, Reduction of Deoxynivalenol Accumulation and Phytohormone Induction by Two Selected Antagonists Image
Biocontrol of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, Reduction of Deoxynivalenol Accumulation and Phytohormone Induction by Two Selected Antagonists
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat and other small cereal grains worldwide. Species within the Fusarium graminearum complex are the main pathogens associated with t... Read More
MycoKey Round Table Discussions of Future Directions in Research on Chemical Detection Methods, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mycotoxins Image
MycoKey Round Table Discussions of Future Directions in Research on Chemical Detection Methods, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mycotoxins
MycoKey, an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project, includes a series of “Roundtable Discussions” to gather information on trending research areas in the field of mycotoxicology. This paper includes summaries of the Roundtable Discus... Read More
A Review of Current Methods for Analysis of Mycotoxins in Herbal Medicines Image
A Review of Current Methods for Analysis of Mycotoxins in Herbal Medicines
The presence of mycotoxins in herbal medicines is an established problem throughout the entire world. The sensitive and accurate analysis of mycotoxin in complicated matrices (e.g., herbs) typically involves... Read More
An aldo-keto reductase is responsible for Fusarium toxin-degrading activity in a soil Sphingomonas strain Image
An aldo-keto reductase is responsible for Fusarium toxin-degrading activity in a soil Sphingomonas strain
Degradation of toxins by microorganisms is a promising approach for detoxification of agricultural products. Here, a bac... Read More
The mitochondrial membrane protein FgLetm1 regulates mitochondrial integrity, production of endogenous reactive oxygen species and mycotoxin biosynthesis in Fusarium graminearum Image
The mitochondrial membrane protein FgLetm1 regulates mitochondrial integrity, production of endogenous reactive oxygen species and mycotoxin biosynthesis in Fusarium graminearum
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced in cereal crops infected with Fusarium graminearum. DON poses a serious threat to human and animal health and is a critical virulence factor. Various environmental factors including r... Read More
Shelf life improvement of the loaf bread using allyl, phenyl and benzyl isothiocyanates against Aspergillus parasiticus Image
Shelf life improvement of the loaf bread using allyl, phenyl and benzyl isothiocyanates against Aspergillus parasiticus
Fungal growth inhibition and aflatoxins (AFs) reduction using allyl (AITC), benzyl (BITC) and phenyl (PITC) isothiocyanates were studied in loaf bread contaminated with Aspergillus parasiticus. Two inoculated loaf bread slices w... Read More
Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives Image
Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives
This review focuses on the biotransformation of mycotoxins performed with purified enzymes isolated from bacteria, fungi and plants, whose activity was validated in in vitro and in vivo assays, including patented ones and commercial prep... Read More
Aflatoxin B1 and M1 Degradation by Lac2 from Pleurotus pulmonarius and Redox Mediators Image
Aflatoxin B1 and M1 Degradation by Lac2 from Pleurotus pulmonarius and Redox Mediators
 This paper reports the possibility that a laccase enzyme produced by a mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius, could degrade the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1. This activity can... Read More
Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Products Image
Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Products
An unprecedented, environmentally friendly, and faster method for the determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA)  has for the first time, been set up and validated using choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) (e.g., ChCl/g... Read More
Decontamination of Fumonisin B1 in maize grain by Pleurotus eryngii and antioxidant enzymes Image
Decontamination of Fumonisin B1 in maize grain by Pleurotus eryngii and antioxidant enzymes
This paper investigates the potential role of P. eryngii in the decontamination of FB1 in maize. Selected antioxidant enzymes, (soluble peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase), primarily involved in control of cell hyd... Read More
Enniatin and Beauvericin Biosynthesis in Fusarium Species: Production Profiles and Structural Determinant Prediction Image
Enniatin and Beauvericin Biosynthesis in Fusarium Species: Production Profiles and Structural Determinant Prediction
In this study, we analyzed the primary structure of ESYN1 by sequencing esyn1 transcripts from different Fusarium species. Members of the fungal genus Fusarium can produce numerous secondary metabolites, including th... Read More
Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1 Image
Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) bi... Read More
Bioremediation of aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize by king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Image
Bioremediation of aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize by king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)
This paper investigated the capability of the white-rot and edible fungus Plerotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) to degrade AFB1 both in vitro and in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation, using a substrat... Read More
Mitochondrial genomes reveal recombination in the presumed asexual Fusarium oxysporum species complex Image
Mitochondrial genomes reveal recombination in the presumed asexual Fusarium oxysporum species complex
The mitochondrial recombination indicates the presence of a parasexual cycle in F. oxysporum. The obstacles hindering the usage of the mitogenomes are resolved by using next generation sequencing and selective genome assemblers, su... Read More
Antimicrobial packaging based on E-polylysine bioactive film for the control of mycotoxigenic fungi in vitro and in bread Image
Antimicrobial packaging based on E-polylysine bioactive film for the control of mycotoxigenic fungi in vitro and in bread
This study investigates the use of E-PL as natural antimicrobial to inhibit fungal growth and to reduce aflatoxins (AFs) production. Antifungal activity of starch biofilms with different concentrations of E-Poly-L-lysine (E-PL) was deter... Read More
Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of commercial bread loaf in Valencia, Spain Image
Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through the consumption of commercial bread loaf in Valencia, Spain
In this study, 80 commercial samples of bread loaves were purchased from different supermarkets located in Valencia (Spain). These samples were investigated for the presence of legislated and non-legislated mycotoxins. Results showed tha... Read More
Recent advances in modeling the risk of mycotoxin contamination in crops Image
Recent advances in modeling the risk of mycotoxin contamination in crops
Recent advances confirm the focus in modeling mycotoxin in few crops; cereals, both small grains and maize, deserve major attention. Deoxinivalenol is still the mycotoxin of major interest in wheat, with some studies developed on T-2 and... Read More
Genetic divergence and chemotype diversity in the Fusarium head blight pathogen Fusarium poae Image
Genetic divergence and chemotype diversity in the Fusarium head blight pathogen Fusarium poae
Fusarium head blight is a disease caused by a complex of Fusarium species. F. poae is omnipresent throughout Europe in spite of its low virulence. In this study, we assessed a geographically diverse collection of F. poae... Read More
Molecular Basis of Resistance to Fusarium Ear Rot in Maize Image
Molecular Basis of Resistance to Fusarium Ear Rot in Maize
The impact of climate change has been identified as an emerging issue for food security and safety, and the increased in... Read More
Genomic characterization of Trichoderma atrobrunneum (T. harzianum species complex) ITEM 908: insight into the genetic endowment of a multi-target biocontrol strain Image
Genomic characterization of Trichoderma atrobrunneum (T. harzianum species complex) ITEM 908: insight into the genetic endowment of a multi-target biocontrol strain
The MLST analysis of ITS-TEF1 concatenated datasets reclassified ITEM 908 as T. atrobrunneum, a species recently described within the T. harzianum species complex and phylogenetically close to T. afroharzianum and T. guizhouense. Genomic... Read More